The benefits of perennial vegetables are numerous. Compare them to annual vegetables and it is almost logical. After stumbling on this as an idea, I feel a bit silly for taking two years to realize the truth. But right now I'm unstoppable. I have become an ardent evangelist of perennial crops and when I lay out the reasons why, you will also be converted, I'm sure.
Obviously without regular tilling and planting, the soil is disturbed less frequently so the perennials are better for the soil and this means better for the environment. Healthy soil sequesters more carbon than our trees, and is the greatest water cleaner, a giant water filter taking out all the poisons and helping us to a healthier life. Soil is also one of the best places to store water. Well hydrated landscapes are healthier and more resilient and productive, and healthy soil stores more water.
Thousands of years of plant breeding in the cold north has meant selection for plants which boom and bust in a few months because of the short growing season. This type of vegetable culture has been carried to the ex colonies. As a permaculturist, because of the way we are taught to think, the annual treadmill of sowing, planting out, and then harvesting in quick succession bothered me and I've been looking for a solution since the beginning. I saw beautiful gardens laid by colleagues turn to dust after summer. I realized that a month of neglect turns an average vegetable garden into a wasteland. It seemed especially wrong in our permanently temperate Mediterranean climate.
Although our growing season is all year round, we have mostly annual vegetables at a place like the Cape, unfortunately. Most unfortunately, because perennials are not only better for the soil, they are often less developed and bred, and closer to the wild varieties. This logically means they are much hardier and their water and fertility needs are lessened compared to four month growth period annuals, which need perfect conditions to grow uninterrupted and rapidly, to build perfect plant tissue as fast as possible. Perennials are often more tolerant of the vagaries of climate and soil.
Perennials are not only hardier concerning water and soil fertility, they have greater resistance to pests and diseases, being closer to wild varieties genetically.
At the Cape we have frequent drought and poor soil, so its obvious that hardier vegetables like perennial vegetables will do better than the annuals. So for all the reasons above, perennial vegetables supply greater food security. Not only this they can give us greater health security, for which I will lay out two reasons below.
Obviously, perennial vegetables are much less work. After planting and watering until they are established, only trimming and harvesting is needed. So does one love this because one is lazy, or farsighted. Most working people are under too much time pressure to grow their own food. If they are not wealthy enough to buy organic their diet of agribusiness fodder both vegetable and animal condemns them to a future in which possible chronic illnesses and a slow decline into death, in discomfort and at horrendous cost looms in late life. Perennial vegetables are perfectly tailored to the lives of busy people who don't earn fabulous salaries but still want to eat healthily.
Because of their closeness to the wild plant originator,
perennial vegetables not only have all these advantages, but they have
the highest nutrient value of all. Breeding selects for
appearance, blander taste or sweetness, fast growth, rapid germination and breeders never even
nutritional value because it was not yet known. Breeding was done long
ago without molecular theory or organic chemistry, and recently without
knowledge of the importance of phytochemistry for longevity. Also as the
bitterness and strong flavors were bred out of the vegetables and fruit,
and many plants were selected for whiteness, like potatoes and maize, the
nutrient and the protective value declined, because the plant chemicals
that protect us from degenerative disease give the strong flavors and
bright colors. The old tangy, colorful perennials are better for us.
In the original set of easy vegetables on this website there were a few perennials, because they are easier. I've moved them here. So far you can find out how to grow pineapples, mint, olives, New Zealand and dune spinach, rosemary, chard, acorns and turmeric. Becoming interested in perennial vegetables has opened up a wonderful new world to me. Because of our climate I've had to look beyond the European vegetables, and found that most food plants from warmer regions are perennial, to take advantage of the long growing season. A vast cornucopia of new foods becomes available, a splendid variety that transcends anything I thought possible when I began to look for perennial vegetables. I am utterly overwhelmed by the diversity possible. I imagined they would be few and far between, and taste horrible, so stuck I was in a Eurocentric food paradigm.
To begin with I've begun to collect pictures on this topic on Pinterest,
and I'm transitioning completely as soon as I source enough plants.
Many are less common and hard to find at the local nursery. A good
source is food. You can find seeds and tubers in food shops that will
grow. As I learn more about sourcing and growing perennials, and their climate and soil tolerances I can
document my progress. In time I hope to become a supplier and to ensure that everyone in Cape Town regardless of income or area can find these plants in urban food forests, to harvest or plant them at home.
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